I have been into this hobby for a long time now,today am gonna write about the drone racing or to call it correct quadcopter racing and not drone racing as these copters arent capable to do what the drone can actually done these are just for fun and adrenaline boost ……… (big boys toys)
Well Quadcopter is a rotor that has 4 motors and 4 propellers there are many principles for the quadcopter to fly as we are to discuss about the racing copters there are some sizes and speeds….
we start with the frames…
#250mm/220mm/180mm/330mm these are the sizes of frames famous for racing well now what does this sizes mean actually….
this is the luminer 250 size quad frame so by the image itself we get to know its motor to motor diagonal distance as 250mm accordingly…
Motors & ESC(electronic speed controllers for brush-less motors )
well now we come to the motors and esc
any hobbyist generally decides these motors and esc from a huge brand and specs system it all depends on how experienced pilot you are and how knowledge full you are to tune your copter.
the general criteria for this size of copter is like 2000kv to 2500kv motors
Note : Always check the technical specs of all the electronics components we buy compare them with few other products…
Now what does that mean???
Kv is the motor velocity constant, measured in RPM per volt (not to be confused with kV, the abbreviation for kilovolt). The Kv rating of a brushless motor is the ratio of the motor’s unloaded RPM to the peak (not RMS) voltage on the wires connected to the coils (the back EMF).
(this is what goggle says 😛 ) well its simply the rotational speed of a motor that defines how many times a propeller will complete its full rotation in a unit time.
so now as we are choosing 2000-2500kv motors as per the specs and recommendation by any seller for prop size is 6045 or smaller props
most common are the 5045 props even here we have a lot of variations to choose from all depends on us as i said earlier experience and troubleshooting for more speeds.
motors usually come in a size diameter of 1804 and 2204 2204 can take much bigger props and more tough and gives much more thrust where as 1804 are decent good for beginners…
esc is a electronic speed controller are the controllers those control the speed variation that we give from our radio here the clock-speed and firmware of esc plays the important role
most common esc have simonk or blheli firmware which work the best and have a huge community support…
check the amperage draw of the motors while buying a esc
how do we choose esc??
well esc are to be taken as the values 10% more than what our motors draws per unit time suppose the motor you choose draws 15amps you can use 15amp rated esc but a 20amp rated esc is much beneficial while fast switching and aggressive flying as motors may over draw at times during crash or so….
now comes the main part flight controller
what is a flight controller (fc)?
A flight controller (FC) is a small circuit board of varying complexity. Its function is to direct the RPM of each motor in response to input. A command from the pilot for the multi-rotor to move forward is fed into the flight controller, which determines how to manipulate the motors accordingly.
The majority of flight controllers also employ sensors to supplement their calculations. These range from simple gyroscopes for orientation to barometers for automatically holding altitudes. GPS can also be used for auto-pilot or fail-safe purposes. More on that shortly.
With a proper flight controller setup, a pilot’s control inputs should correspond exactly to the behavior of the craft. Flight controllers are configurable and programmable, allowing for adjustments based on varying multi-rotor configurations. Gains or PIDs are used to tune the controller, yielding snappy, locked-in response. Depending on your choice of flight controller, various software is available to write your own settings.
Many flight controllers allow for different flight modes, selectable using a transmitter switch. An example of a three-position setup might be a GPS lock mode, a self-leveling mode, and a manual mode. Different settings can be applied to each profile, achieving varying flight characteristics.
well the most famous and usually used flight controllers in copter racing are : Cc3d,Naze 32,Flip 32,Sp racing etc they range for about a price of 2000 and above………
Batteries / Lipos
well the lipos are the power unit to both the fpv and the main copter (Fpv-first person view the camera and video tx )
lipos for such setups are ranged frome 1300 mah to 1800 mah rated more than 25c well now to choose lipos you can used many online flight time calculators to calculate the time you would get
on certain lipo with a particular motor now the ‘c’ rating
C rating is the grading that a lipo is given on its capacity to output the power unit time well lets consider a 1000mah 20c lipo it is capable of giving our 20amps a unit time we calculate it as 1000mah = 1amps
so 1ampx20c= total amps per unit time so at once the 1000mah 20c lipo would give 20amps
what is this ‘c’ rating used for ??
so lets consider you choose a 1804 motors and its rated at 7amps at full throttle so we can choose a 12amp esc lets calculate the battery will support the setup or not
now as a motors consumes 7amps ,4 motors will consume 7×4=24amps so total 24amps will be consumed at full throttle by the setup so we need a lipo that can supply 24amps at once continuous
so we need a lipo whos mah x c is more than 25amps usually we dont fly at full throttle bt its good to be always at a higher time you would obviously get some more seconds to fly…
FPV ( First Person View)
First-person view (FPV), also known as remote-person view (RPV), or simply video piloting, is a method used to control a radio-controlled vehicle from the driver or pilot’s view point. Most commonly it is used to pilot a radio-controlled aircraft or other type of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The vehicle is either driven or piloted remotely from a first-person perspective via an onboard camera, fed wirelessly to video fpv goggles or a video monitor. More sophisticated setups include a pan-and-tilt gimbaled camera controlled by a gyroscope sensor in the pilot’s goggles and with dual onboard cameras, enabling a true stereoscopic view.(google.com)
Its simply a video transmitter with a camera on copter and a receiver on pilots end
there are basically 2 commonly used system one is 2.4ghz and one is 5.8ghz again the radio bandwidth shouldnt be same as the video transmissio frequency as they might interfere.
now comes the power and transmission range more the power longer the range and more directional it gets its like to earn something you have to loose something even if you are spending money on high end gadgets for fpv or range you are losing money eventually…………… back to racer copters fpv normally is rated at 200mw to 600mw and the bandwidth used is 5.8ghz…
most of the hobbyist use a 2.4ghz radio transmitter for control and to avoid interference or also to fly with our friends together we use 5.8ghz system which allows us frequency hopping and parallel use of our gadgets working on same frequency so as our friends….
Fpv can be done with a display lcd or can also be done with the most popular fpv goggles fat shark is a one of the leading company in fpv goggles and are the best as per me i have used all the fatshark series have owned them and now the best one in the market which is light weight and with advance features and larger field of vision dominator v3 well all this depends on our budget we want to get it done in….
Fpv flying needs a basic control over the copter and piloting skills.
ohh yes of-course you need a radio control based on 2.4ghz the best budget radio is flysky 9ch which can be Modded later on our choice for extra features..
always keep spares as we always crash often !!!
so now you have the basic knowledge of all the stuff you need abou the components in copter racing………….
i have been experimenting different combos and power units….
If you wish to know more about the copters or want to make one contact me
check my instagram for more setups and stuff: rohit_k1501
here are some pictures of my builds
the specs are as follows :
1) Zmr 250 cf frame
sunnysky 2204 2300kv
20amp dys opto esc
2)Zmr 250 frame
Sunnysky 1804 2300kv
12amp simonk esc
3)zmr 250 frame
dys 1804 2300kv
12amp simonk esc emax